Further reading and useful links
-What is the evidence for rest, ice, compression, and elevation therapy in the treatment of ankle sprains in adults?
Van den Bekerom MPJ, Struijs PAA, Blankevoort L, et al.
Journal of Athletic Training 2012;47(4):435-443
-Effect of ice massage on lower extremity functional performance and weight discrimination ability in collegiate footballers.
Geeta Sharma, Majumi Nahoo
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;5(3)
–Acute effects of cold therapy on knee skin surface temperature: Gel pack versus ice bag.
Breslin M, Lam P, Murrell GA.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2015;1(1)
“Results of various studies are consistent on the effects on neuromuscular and pain processes. Results of studies on cold and blood flow vary considerably, however it appears that blood flow increases with superficial cold application and decreases when cold is applied to large skin surface areas. Motor performance is affected by temperature with a critical temperature being around 18 degrees C, above and beneath which muscle performance decreases. There is also a critical temperature for the application of cold with inflammation and oedema increasing at temperatures below 15 degrees C. “
-The Use of Cryotherapy in Sports Medicine
R Meeusen, P Lievens
Sports Medicine Review Nov-Dec 1986;3(6):398-414
American Academy of Pediatrics guide on using ice for sports injuries in kids